Mode of Action Anti Serangga dari Tananam Jayanti (Sesbania sesban L. Merr.)(MAGNOLIOPSIDA: FABACEAE)

Suripto Suripto, Tresnani, G., Gunawan, E. R.

Abstract

Abstrak: Dari hasil penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya telah diketahui, bahwa tanaman Jayanti (Sesbania. Sesban) memiliki aktivitas anti serangga terhadap Plutella xylostella, salah satu jenis serangga hama penting tanaman kubis. Juga telah diketahui, bahwa bahan aktif anti serangga dari S. sesban dengan konsentrasi tertentu dapat mematikan imago Diadegma semiclausum, yang merupakan musuh alami dari P. xylostella. Namun demikian, mode-mode aksi aplikasi bahan insektisida dari S. sesban yang selektif untuk pengendalian serangga hama, yaitu dapat menekan populasi P. xylostella namun aman terhadap populasi D. semiclausum belum diketahui. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mode-mode aksi aplikasi berbagai fraaksi ekstrak daun S. sesban yang selektif untuk pengendalian P. xylostella.  Serbuk kering daun S. sesban diekstraksi secara bertingkat menggunakan seri pelarut, yaitu berturut-turut petroleum eter, diklorometana, etanol dan air. Masing-masing fraksi ekstrak daun S. sesban dilakukan bioassay terhadap  P. Xylostella secara parallel,  yaitu uji mortalitas larva, uji daya tolak ovipositor, uji penghambatan penetasan telur dan uji anti feedant. Data hasil setiap uji hayati diolah dengan analisis probit untuk menentukan LC50 (mortalitas larva) dan EC50 (daya tolak ovipositor, penghambatan tetas telur dan daya anti feedant). Hasil menunjukkan,  bahwa fraksi ekstrak-etanol daun S. sesban memiliki daya anti serangga terhadap P. xylostella lebih tinggi daripada fraksi-fraksi ekstrak lainnya. Hasil juga menunjukkan, bahwa aplikasi fraksi ekstrak-etanol daun S. sesban melalui mode-mode  aksi  anti ovipositor dan anti feedant adalah selektif untuk pengendalian  P. xylostella. Harga EC50 daya tolak ovipositor (20.52 ppm) dan EC50 anti feedant (26.77 ppm) terhadap P. xylostella masing-masing lebih kecil daripada harga LC50 (37.38 ppm) terhadap D. semiclausum. Disarankan, bahwa penggunaan ekstrak daun S. sesban untuk pengendalian P. xylostella hendaknya diarahkan untuk aplikasi menolak oviposisi dan menghambat aktivitas makan dan tidak disarakan untuk aplikasi mematikan larva dan menghambat penetasan telur P. xylostella. Juga disarankan, bahwa selektivitas ekologis dan efektivitas pengendalian P. xylostella dengan insektisida dari S. sesban perlu dievaluasi dengan mempelajari lebih lanjut stabilitas anti serangga dari S. sesban selama penyimpanan serbuk kering daun sebelum diekstraksi, penyimpanan ekstrak sebelum diaplikasikan, dan stabilitasnya selama aplikasi.

Kata kunci: Diadgma semiclausum, mode aksi anti serangga, Plutella xylostella, Sesbania sesban.

Abstract: From the results of previous studies have been known that Jayanti (Sesbania sesban) plants have anti-insect activity against Plutella xylostella, one of the important species of insect pests of cabbage. It is also well known, that the anti-insect active ingredient from S. sesban with a certain concentration can kill Diadegma semiclausum imago, which is a natural enemy of P. xylostella. However, selective modes of action for the application of insecticides from S. sesban for pest control, which suppress P. xylostella populations but are safe against D. semiclausum are not yet known. The S. sesban leaf dry powder was extracted stratified using a series of solvents, namely petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol and water, respectively. Each fraction of S. sesban leaf extract was bioassayed on P. xylostella in parallel, namely larval mortality, ovipositor resistance, egg hatching inhibition and anti-feedant tests. Data on the results of each bioassay was analyzed by probit analysis to determine LC50 (larval mortality) and EC50 (ovipositor resistance, egg hatching inhibition and anti-feedant power. The results show that the extract fraction-ethanol of S. sesban leaves has higher insect repellent ability against P. xylostella than other extract fractions. The results also showed that the application of S. sesban leaf extract fraction-ethanol through each mode of action of anti-ovipositor and anti-feedant was selective for the control of P. xylostella. Each of the reject ovipositor EC50 (20.52 ppm) and anti-feedant EC50 (26.77 ppm) values against P. xylostella was smaller than the LC50 price (37.38 ppm) against D. semiclausum imago. It is recommended that the use of S. sesban leaf extract for controlling P. xylostella should be directed with application to reject oviposition and inhibit eating activities. This is because the concentration of the extract application is safe against D. semiclausum. Application of S. sesban leaf extract is not recommended to kill larvae and inhibit hatching eggs of P. xylostella because it requires a greater concentration of extract application and can suppress the population of D. semiclausum. Ecological anti-insect selectivity and effectiveness of using insecticide from S. sesban for the control of P. xylostella need to be evaluated by further studying the stability of the anti-insect active ingredient from S. sesban during storage of dried leaf powder before extracting, storage of extracts before being applied, and their stability during application.

Keywords: Diadegma semiclausum, insecticidal mode of action, Plutella xylostella, Sesbania sesban.

Keywords

Diadegma semiclausum; insecticidal mode of action; Plutella xylostella; Sesbania sesban;

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References

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