ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI KOMPONEN KIMIA MINYAK ASIRI DAGING BUAH DAN FULI BERDASARKAN UMUR BUAH PALA (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTT)

Angreni B. Liunokas, Ferry F. Karwur

Abstract

Abstrak: Pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) sebagai bioreaktor hayati menghasilkan produk utama minyak asiri bernilai ekonomi tinggi yang tersebar pada bagian-bagian buahnya. Minyak asiri pala tersusun oleh kelompok besar terpenoid dan fenilpropanoid yang memiliki konsentrasi terkecil namun sebagai indikator mutu minyak pala. Penelitian tentang isolasi dan identifikasi komponen kimia minyak asiri daging buah dan fuli pala, telah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium CARC UKSW Salatiga dan Laboratorium Terpadu UII Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komponen kimia minyak asiri daging buah dan fuli pala berdasarkan tahapan perkembangan buah dan isolasi miristisin sebagai indikator dari kualitas minyak pala. Minyak asiri diperoleh dengan metode ekstraksi kemudian di analisis komponennya menggunakan Kromatografi Gas Spektrometri Massa (GC-MS). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komponen kimia terbesar dari minyak asiri daging buah pala secara berturut-turut yaitu tahap pertama miristisin 36.05% pada retensi 11.57 menit, tahap kedua dan keempat α-pinen 39.16%; 34.64% retensi 3.53 menit, tahap ketiga sabinen 33.88% pada retensi 3.99 menit. Sedangkan pada minyak fuli tahap pertama hingga keempat yaitu sabinen 38.72%; 37.51%; 36.24%; 28.93% pada waktu retensi 3.99. Berdasarkan analisis GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa komponen senyawa yang dominan pada daging buah dan fuli yaitu miristisin, sabinen, α-pinen, β-pinen yang berkontribusi bagi aroma khas pada pala. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber informasi penting dalam menghasilkan minyak asiri dengan kualitas baik dengan kandungan miristisin terbanyak.

Kata Kunci : M. fragrans Houtt; isolasi; daging buah, fuli, minyak asiri

Abstract: Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) as a natural bioreactor produces the main product that is aetheric oil with a high economic value which is scattered on the parts of the fruit. Aetheric oil consists of a big group of terpenoid and phenylpropanoid which has the smallest concentration but functions as the indicator of nutmeg oil quality. The research about isolation and identification of chemical components of aetheric oil of pulp and mace has been conducted in CARC Laboratory of UKSW Salatiga and Integrated Laboratory of UII Yogyakarta. This current research aims at knowing the components of aetheric oil of nutmeg pulp and mace based on the development stages of the fruit and myristicin isolation as the indicator of the quality of nutmeg oil. Aetheric oil is formed by the extraction method. Then the components are analyzed by using Mass Spectrometry Gass Chromatography (GC-MS). The result of the research shows that respectively the biggest chemical component of aetheric oil consists of the first stage myristicin 36.05% on retention 11.57 minutes, second stage and fourth stage α-pinene 39.16%; 34.64% on retention 3.53 minutes, the third stage sabinene 33.88% on retention 3.99 minutes. Meanwhile on the mace oil, the first to the fourth stage is sabinene 38.72%; 37.51%; 36.24%; 28.93% on retention 3.99. Based on the analysis of GC-MS, it is shown that the most dominant compound components of pulp and mace are myristicin, sabinene, α-pinene, and β-pinene which contribute to the typical scent of nutmeg. The result of the research is expected to be used as an important information source in resulting in aetheric oil with good quality with the most myristicin content.

Keywords: Myristica fragrans Houtt; isolation; pulp, mace, aetheric oil

Keywords

Myristica fragrans Houtt; Isolasi; Daging Buah;Fuli; Minyak asiri

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adjene, J.O and Patrick S. Igbigbi. (2010). Effect of Chronic Consumption of Nutmeg on the Stomach of Adult Wistar Rats. Fooyin Journal of Health Sciences. 2 (2): 62-65. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877860710600173

Agati, G and Tattini, M. (2010). Multiple Functional Roles of Flavonoids in Photoprotection. New Phytol. 186: 786-793. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20569414

Agusta, A. (2002). Minyak Atsiri Tumbuhan Tropika Indonesia. ITB, Bandung. https://opac.perpusnas.go.id/DetailOpac.aspx?id=182441

Al-Bataina, B.A., Maslat, A.O., Al-Kofahi, M.M. (2003). Element analysis and Biological Studies on Ten Oriental Spices Using XRF and Ames Test. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 17(2):85-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14531636

Ansory, H.M., Hardjono, S., Bambang, P. (2015). Comparison of Essential Oils Quality from Parts of Nutmeg Based on Myristicin Level. Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia. 12(2):127-136. http://farmasiindonesia.setiabudi.ac.id/

Arrijani. (2005). Biologi dan Konservasi Marga Myristica di Indonesia: Review. Biodiversitas. 6(2):147-151. http://biodiversitas.mipa.uns.ac.id/D/D0602/D060216.pdf

Asgarpanah, J and Kazemivash, N. (2012). Phytochemistry and Pharmacologica Properties of Myristica fragrans Houtt: A Review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11 (65):12787-12793. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235672070_Phytochemistry_and_pharmacologic_properties_of_Myristica_fragrans_Hoyutt_A_review

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (Balittro). (2015). Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. 26(1). http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro/issue/view/666

BSN. (2006). SNI Minyak Pala. Indonesia. Badan Standarisasi Nasional. http://sispk.bsn.go.id/SNI/DetailSNI/7177

Bustaman, S. (2008). Prospek Pengembangan Minyak pala Banda Sebagai Komoditas Ekspor Maluku Litbang Pertanian. 27 (3): 93-98. http://203.190.37.42/publikasi/p3273083.pdf

Chairul & Sri Budi Sulianti. (2000). Minyak Asiri Pala Wegio (Myristica fatua L) dan Pala (Myristica fragrans L) dengan GC-MS. Proseding dalam Seminar Hari Cinta Puspa dan Satwa Nasional, 5 November 2000, Bogor. http://lipi.go.id/publikasi/

Dinar L., Atris S & M, Affan Fajar F. (2013). Kajian Standar NAsional Indonesia Biji Pala (Study on National Indonesian Standard of Nutmeg). Jurnal Standardisasi. 15(2):83-90. http://index.php/standardisasi/article/download/111/pdf+&cd=2&hl=id&ct=clnk&gl=id

Djubaedah E., T. d. (1995). Pengaruh Perlakuan Daging Buah Pala Tua (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Terhadap Mutu Sirup yang Dihasilkannya. Warta IHP, 12 (1-2): 25-29. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32765/warta%20ihp.v12i1-2.2417

Ehlers, D., kirchhoff, J., Gerrard, D., and Quirin, K.W. (1998). High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Nutmeg and Mace Oils Produced by Super Critical CO2 Extraction-Comparison With Steam Distiled Oils-Comparison of East India, West Indian and Papuan Oils. International Journal of Food Science and Techonology. 33(3):215-223. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2621.1998.00172.x

Guenther, E. (1952). The Essential Oils Vol II, III and V. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jps.3030410817

Gopalakrishnan, M. (1992). Chemical Composition of Nutmeg and Mace. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 1:49-54 (3). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0792/e0987b2ad23d4da08c6a658e2bb281dac807.pdf

Hadad, E.A. (1991). Keragaman Pertanaman Cengkeh di Propinsi Sulawesi Utara. Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, 6(2): 61-68. http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro/article/view/6686

Ilyas M, MR Uluputty, Sandra AA, Memen S. (2008). Karakteristik Morfoekotipe dan Proksimat Pala Banda (Myristica fragrans Houtt). Bul. Agron.(36),2:146-152. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277827843_Karakterisasi_Morfoekotipe_dan_Proksimat_Pala_Banda_Myristica_fragrans_Houtt

ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). (2006). International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules Editionn 2006. The International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf. SH-Switzerland.

ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). (2010). International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules Editionn 2006. The International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf. SH-Switzerland.

Jaiswal P., Pradeep Kumar., Vinay K. S., Dinesh K. S. (2009). Biological Efffects of Myristica fragrans. Annual Review of Bimedical Sciences. 11, 21-29. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260386780_Biological_Effects_of_Myristica_fragrans

Jingjin Jin, Mi J.K., Savitha D., J.G. Tjhang, Jun-Lin Y., L. Wong, R. Sarojam, Nam-Hai C., and In-Cheong J. (2015). The Floral transciptome of ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata Var. frutiosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (13) : 3959-3975. https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article/66/13/3959/515808

Kapelle, I. B. D. & Marsela S. L. (2014). Trymiristin Isolation from Nutmeg and Synthesis of Methylester Using Heterogen Catalyst. J. Ind Chem Res., 2: 160-165. https://onesearch.id/Record/IOS4760.article-89

Krishnamoorthy, B & J. Rema. (2000). Nutmeg and Mace. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Indian Institute of Spesies Research, Kerala. Woodhead Publishing Limited. Cambridge England. 238-248. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=

Latha, P.G., Sindhu, P.G., Suja, S.R., Geetha, B.S., Pushpangdan, P., and Rajasekharan, S. (2005). Pharmacology and Chemistry of Myristica fragrans Houtt. A Review. Joumal of Spesies and Aromatic Crops 14(2), 94-101 https://books.google.co.id/books?id=bGJlVrdqVTsC&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dqnepage&q=Latha%2C%20P.G.

Leela, N.K. (2008). Nutmeg and Mace. CABI International. London, UK bby Biddles Ltd. file:///C:/Users/DELL/Downloads/Documents/Chemistry_of_Spices.pdf

Mallavarapu, G.R and Ramesh, S. (1998). Composition of essential oils of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) accessions. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 13(2):135-139. file:///C:/Users/DELL/Downloads/Documents/Vol.-XIII-No.2-135-139.pdf

Maya, K.M., John Zachariah, T., and Krishnamurthy. (2004). Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Accessions. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops.13(2):135-139. https://naturalingredient.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Vol.-XIII-No.2-135-139.pdf

Naning Yuniarti, Rina K., Danu dan Nurmawati S. (2016). Mutu Fisik, Fisiologi dan Kandungan Biokimia Benih Trema Berdasarkan Tingkat Kemasakan Buah. Jurnal Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan. 4 (2): 53-65. http://oaji.net/articles/2017/5000-1496125157.pdf

Nurdjanah, N. (2007). Teknologi Pengolahan Pala. Bogor: Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian. http://pascapanen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/perpustakaan/repository/juknis_pala.pdf

Peer, W.A and Murphy, A.S. (2007). Flavonoids and Auxin Transport: Modulator Regulator. Trends Plant Sci. 12: 556-563. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5652036_Peer_WA_Murphy_AS_Flavonoids_and_auxin_transport_modulators_or_regulators_Trends_Plant_Sci_12_556-563

Purseglove, J.W., E.G. Brown, S.L. Green & S.R.J. Robbins. (1995). Spices. Longmans, New York, 175-228. https://www.google.com/search?ei=a01PXv6xA8Oa4-

Purwiyanti, S., Sudarsono, Yudiwanti E. EK. & otih R. (2018). Posisi Pendonor Serbuk Sari dan Iklim yang berpengaruh Terhadap Produksi Buah Pala. Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (29), 1:47-58. http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro/article/download/9099/8202+&cd=1&hl=id&ct=clnk&gl=id

Rismunandar (1992). Budidaya dan tata Niaga Pala. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya. ISBN : 979-803188-1. https://opac.perpusnas.go.id/DetailOpac.aspx?id=651341

Sjahrul Bustaman. (2008). Prospek Pengembangan Minyak Pala Banda Sebagai Komoditas Ekspor Maluku. Litbang Pertanian. 27(3):93-98. http://perkebunan.litbang.pertanian.go.id/dbasebun/asset_dbasebun/Penerbitan-20160906094523.pdf+&cd=2&hl=id&ct=clnk&gl=id

Soenarsih S.DAS., Sudarsono S., H.M.H Bintoro D. & Yudiwanti W.E.K. (2012). Keragaman Spesies Pala (Myristica Spp.) Maluku Utara Berdasarkan Penanda Morfologi dan Agronomi. Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri.18:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v18n1.2012.1%20-%209

Suhirman S., H.E. (2006). Pengaruh Penghilangan Tannin dari Jenis Pala Terhadap Sari Buah Pala. Bul. Littro., 17:39-52. http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro/article/view/1950/5439

Suprihatin,. S. Ketaren., S. Nyudiwaluyo & A. Friyadi. (2002). Isolasi Miristisin dari Minyak Pala (Myristica fragrans) dengan Metode Penyulingan Uap. Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian.17(1):23-28. https://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jurnaltin/article/view/4212/2863+&cd=1&hl=id&ct=clnk&gl=id

Tainter, R.D & Grenis, T.A. (1993). Spices and Seasonings Food Science and Technology. VCH Publishers, New York, p.226. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=bGJlVrdqVTsC&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Spices

Tanaka Y., Sassaki, N & Akemi, O. (2008). Biosynthesis of Plant Pigments: Anthocyanins Betalains and Carotenoids. Plant J. 54: 733-749. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03447.x

Umasangaji, A., Johan A. Patty. & A.A. Rumakamar. (2012). Kerusakan Tanaman Pala Akibat Seranggan Hama Penggerek Batang (Batocera Hercules). Jurnal Agrologia. 1(2): 163-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.30598/a.v1i2.292

Vogt, T. (2010). Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis. Mol. Plant.3:2-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20035037

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.