Peran Vegetasi Dominan Pada Karakteristik Tanah di Lahan Bera, Kampung Womnowi, Distrik Sidey, Manokwari

Slamet Arif Susanto, Heru Joko Budirianto, Agatha Cecilia Maturbongs


Abstrak: Selama proses suksesi, vegetasi merupakan satu dari komponen utama untuk meningkatkan kesuburan tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan mendeskripsikan peran vegetasi dominan pada karakteristik tanah di lahan bera berumur 15 tahun Kampung Womnowi, Distrik Sidey, Manokwari. Vegetasi dominan ditentukan berdasarkan data indeks nilai penting (INP) analisis vegetasi. Sampel tanah diambil secara komposit pada luasan lahan 1 hektar dari dua kedalaman tanah (0–10 cm dan 10–20 cm). Vegetasi yang mendominasi lahan bera secara berurutan adalah Pometia pinnata, Dracontomelon dao, Octomeles sumatrana, Lansium domesticum, dan Pimelodendron amboinicum. Kehadiran O. sumatrana mengindikasikan lahan bera tanah aluvial, lebih lanjut terbukti karena lahan bera tersebut berdekatan dengan Sungai Womnowi. Karakteristik fisik tanah didominasi oleh fraksi lempung dan unsur makro lebih tinggi pada kedalaman 0–10 cm dibanding kedalaman 10–20 cm. Karakteristik tanah menunjukkan bahwa tanah tergolong masam (pH 5.4–5.6), kadar karbon organik tanah sedang (1.07–3.39%), kadar nitrogen total rendah (0.17–0.53%), kadar fosfor tersedia tergolong tinggi (10.7–22.4 ppm), kapasitas tukar kation (KTK) tergolong tinggi (10.50–20.32 cmol kg-1), kejenuhan basa tergolong sangat tinggi (65.4–66.7%), dan kadar Al3+ and H+ sangat rendah. Secara keseluruhan urutan KTK menunjukkan Ca > Mg > Na > K yang mengonfirmasi tanah aluvial dan pencucian kalium terjadi dengan cepat. Rendahnya kadar kalium dapat dihubungkan dengan penggunaan unsur tersebut untuk pembentukan buah L. domesticum. Selama pemberaan 15 tahun, vegetasi dominan memengaruhi karakteristik tanah.

Kata kunci: vegetasi pohon, kesuburan tanah, analisis tanah, aluvial, Papua Barat

Abstract: During succesional season vegetation is one of major compound to increase soil fertility. The purpose of this study was to analyzed and description dominant vegetation and their contribution to soil characteristic at fallow land 15 years old Womnowi Village, Sidey District, Manokwari. To determine dominant vegetations we used data important value index (IVI) of vegetation. Two depth of sample soils (0–10 cm dan 10–20 cm) were taken from one hectare area by composite technique. The dominant vegetation on fallow land dominated by Pometia pinnata, Dracontomelon dao, Octomeles sumatrana, Lansium domesticum, and Pimelodendron amboinicum respectively. Presence of O. sumatrana was indicated that the type of aluvial fallow land, further it is proven because the fallow land is close to the Womnowi River. Soil physical characteristic dominated by clay fractions, macronutrient was higher in depth 0-10 cm than 10-20 cm. Characteristic of soil shows acidic soils (pH 5.4–5.6), moderate of soil organic carbon (1.07–3.39%), total of nitrogen was low (0.17–0.53%), high available phosphorus (10.7–22.4 ppm), moderate cation exchange capacity (CEC) (10.50–20.32 cmol kg-1), very high base saturation (65.4–66.7%), and very lows of Al3+ and H+. Overall the order of CEC shows Ca > Mg > Na > K respectively confirmed aluvial soil and fast leached potassium in soil. Low potassium levels are thought be related to the use of the element for fruits formation of L. domesticum. During 15 year fallowed, dominant vegetation had influence to soil characteristic.

Key words: tree vegetation, soil fertility, soil analysis, alluvial, West Papua


vegetasi pohon; kesuburan tanah; analisis tanah; aluvial; Papua Barat

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