A Development of a Coarse Particle Concentration Measurement System Using a Crystal-Based Sensor and a Dust Sensor for Air Quality Measurement


Arif Budianto , Susi Rahayu , Laili Mardiana , Ramadian Ridho Illahi , Rosita Juniarti






Vol. 10 No. 1 (2024): January-June


Coarse Particle, Dust Sensor, Frequency, Oscillator, Sensor System



How to Cite

Budianto, A., Rahayu, S., Mardiana, L., Ridho Illahi, R., & Juniarti, R. (2024). A Development of a Coarse Particle Concentration Measurement System Using a Crystal-Based Sensor and a Dust Sensor for Air Quality Measurement. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Dan Teknologi, 10(1), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.29303/jpft.v10i1.6692


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


QCM or quartz crystal microbalance is a non static crystal that can be used as a mass sensor. As a piezoelectric crystal, a QCM generates an electrical signal with a specific frequency. The frequency change can be utilized as a frequency counter in a mass measurement system. This study aims to develop a coarse particle sensor system using a QCM and an oscillator circuit. In line with this, this study uses an oscillator circuit and a QCM for a sensor development. Thus, the frequency measurement of the QCM contains an oscillator and a signal conditioner connected to a microcontroller. For this purpose, an Arduino Nano was used as the signal processing, while a QCM was used as a coarse particle sensor and compared to a digital dust sensor (Winsen ZH03). The sensor system was evaluated using a fixed-type crystal connected to an oscillator: 2.5 MHz - 7.2 MHz. Arduino Nano processed the frequency signal generated by the developed oscillator. The results show that the sensor system has a stable output signal compared to the comparator. There is a linear correlation between the frequency measured by the system and the oscilloscope (99.73%). It can be concluded that the sensor system can measure coarse particle concentrations from 32-620 ug/cm3 (frequencies from 2 MHz to 7.2 MHz) with a response time of 1 second. The system has an accuracy of 99% and a resolution of 1 Hz.


Barański, R., Galewski, M. A., & Nitkiewicz, S. (2019). The Study of Arduino Uno Feasibility for DAQ Purposes. Diagnostyka, 20(2), 33–48. https://doi. org/10.29354/diag/109174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29354/diag/109174

Budianto, A., Ponco Wardoyo, A. Y., Masruroh, Dharmawan, H. A., & Nurhuda, M. (2020). A Study of the Correlation Between Fine Particle Mass Loading Effect and Frequency Shift of a Bare QCM. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2296(November). https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0030820. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0030820

Budianto, A., Wardoyo, A. Y. P., Masruroh, M., Dharmawan, H. A., & Nurhuda, M. (2021). Performance Test of an Aerosol Concentration Measurement System Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1811, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1811/1/ 012033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1811/1/012033

Budianto, A., Wardoyo, A. Y. P., Dharmawan, H. A., Hadi, K. A, & Mardiana, L. (2023). Graphene Oxide-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Bioparticle Detection (A Case Study for Bacillus sp.). Evergreen, 10(01), 155–161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5109/6781066

Cerda, R. M. (2014). Understanding Quartz Crystals and Oscillators (Unabridge). Norwood: Artech House Publisher.

Cestnik, R., Mau, & Rosenblum, M. (2022). Inferring Oscillator's Phase and Amplitude Response From a Scalar Signal Exploiting Test Stimulation. New Journal of Physics, 24, 123012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/aca70a

Eeftens, M., Meier, R., Schindler, C., Aguilera, I., Phuleria, H., Ineichen, A., Davey, M., Ducret-stich, R., Keidel, D., Probst-hensch, N., Künzli, N., & Tsai, M. (2016). Development of Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen Dioxide, Ultrafine Particles, Lung Deposited Surface Area, and Four Other Markers of Particulate Matter Pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA Regions. Environmental Health, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0137-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0137-9

Gobato, R. (2019). Rhodochrosite as Crystal Oscillator. American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research, 3(2), 187–187. https://doi.org/10.34297/ajbsr.2019.03.000659. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34297/AJBSR.2019.03.000659

Lee, K. K., Granhaug, K., & Andersen, N. (2013). A Study of Low-Power Crystal Oscillator Design. Norchip, 1, 4–7. https://doi.org/10.1109/NORCHIP.2013.6702036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/NORCHIP.2013.6702036

Lombardi, M. A. (2002). Fundamentals of Time and Frequency. In The Mechatronics Handbook (pp. 17-1-17–18). https://doi.org/ 10.1201/9781420037241.ch10.

Mardiana, L., Wardoyo, A.Y.P., Masruroh, M., & Dharmawan, H.A. (2020). Identification of the Relationship of Carbon Dioxide Concentration and the Frequency Changes of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Oscillation Sensor as a Preliminary Study of a Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2296, 020119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0030810

Mardiana, L., Wardoyo, A. Y. P., Masruroh, M., & Dharmawan, H. A. (2023). A Study of an n-TiO2 Coated QCM Sensor’s Response and Reversibility under CO2 Exposure. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 32(2), 1735–1742. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/159078

Murrieta-Rico, F. N., Sergiyenko, O. Y., Petranovskii, V., Hernandez-Balbuena, D., Lindner, L., Tyrsa, V., Tamayo-Perez, U. J., & Nieto-Hipolito, J. I. (2018). Optimization of Pulse Width for Frequency Measurement by the Method of Rational Approximations Principle. Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, 125(April), 463–470. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.measurement.2018.05.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.05.008

Putri, N. P., Suaebah, E., Rohmawati, L., Santjojo, D. J. D. H., Masruroh, & Sakti, S. P. (2023). Implications of the Electrodeposition Scan Rate on the Morphology of Polyaniline Layer and the Impedance of a QCM Sensor. Trends in Sciences, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.48048/ tis.2023.6411. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48048/tis.2023.6411

Rinaldi, R. G. & Fauzi, A. (2019). A Complete Damped Harmonic Oscillator Using an Arduino and an Excel Spreadsheet. Physics Education, 55, 015024. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6552/ab539d. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6552/ab539d

Sakti, S. (2014). Dual Channel High Precision 26 Bit Frequency Counter Using CPLD XC95108XL for QCM Sensor System. International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, 4(3), 239–243. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijiee.2014.v4.441. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJIEE.2014.V4.441

Wardoyo, A., & Budianto, A. (2017). A DC Low Electrostatic Filtering System For PM2.5 Motorcycle Emission. IEEE Xplore, 1, 51–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSIMM.2017.8124260

Wardoyo, A. Y. P., Dharmawan, H. A., Nurhuda, M., & Budianto, A. (2020). A High Voltage Electrostatic Filter for Particulate Matter PM2.5 Capture Applied in Motor Vehicle Exhaust System. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1528(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1528/ 1/012001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1528/1/012001

Wen, H., Xiao, Z., Markham, A., & Trigoni, N. (2015). Accuracy Estimation for Sensor Systems. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 14(7), 1330–1343. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2014.2352262 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2014.2352262

Widhowati, A. A., Wardoyo, A. Y. P., Dharmawan, H. A., Nurhuda, M., & Budianto, A. (2021). Development of a Portable Volatile Organic Compounds Concentration Measurement System Using a CCS811 Air Quality Sensor. IEEE Xplore, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISESD530 23.202 1.9501642 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISESD53023.2021.9501642

Wu, J., Yan, Y., Hu, Y., Qian, X., & Zheng, G. (2022). Oscillation Frequency Measurement of Gaseous Diffusion Flames Using Electrostatic Sensing Techniques. Fuel, 311(April 2021), 122605. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.fuel.2021.122605 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122605

Zhou, H., Melloni, L., Poeppel, D., & Ding, N. (2016). Interpretations of Frequency Domain Analyses of Neural Entrainment: Periodicity, Fundamental Frequency, and Harmonics. Hypothesis and Theory, 10(June), 1–8. https://doi.org/ 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00274

Author Biographies

Arif Budianto, University of Mataram

Susi Rahayu, University of Mataram

Materials Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

Laili Mardiana, University of Mataram

Ramadian Ridho Illahi, University of Mataram

Rosita Juniarti, University of Mataram


Copyright (c) 2024 Susi Rahayu, Arif Budianto, Laili Mardiana, Ramadian Ridho Illahi, Rosita Juniarti

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi (JPFT) agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License (CC-BY-SA License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi (JPFT).
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).

Similar Articles

1 2 3 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.